LIWC: Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count

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Comparing LIWC2007 with LIWC2001 Dictionaries

For users of LIWC2001, a new edition of LIWC that uses a different dictionary can be an unsettling experience. Many of the older dictionaries have been slightly changed, a few have been substantially updated (e.g., exclusive words, cognitive mechanisms), and others have been removed or added. To help older users, the table below lists the means, standard deviations, and correlations between the two dictionary versions. These analyses are based on a comparison of over 2800 randomly selected texts from each of science articles, blogs, novels and talking.

  LIWC2007 mean LIWC2007 SD LIWC2001 mean LIWC2001 SD correlation
Word count 1687.84 7697.27 1687.84 7697.27 1.00
Words per sentence 22.38 44.38 22.38 44.38 1.00
Dictionary words 86.31 10.13 75.32 10.64 0.97
Words>6 letters 13.26 4.56 13.26 4.56 1.00
Pronouns 12.14 4.09 14.16 4.52 0.97
   1st person singular 7.82 3.68 7.78 3.67 1.00
   1st person plural 0.78 0.90 0.78 0.90 1.00
   2nd person 1.08 1.57 1.09 1.60 1.00
Articles 5.36 1.94 5.33 1.94 1.00
Past tense verbs 4.62 3.09 4.74 3.14 1.00
Present tense verbs 8.77 3.80 10.46 4.07 0.96
Future tense verbs 1.14 1.07 1.28 1.22 0.88
Prepositions 12.24 2.85 12.23 2.82 0.99
Negations 1.91 1.11 1.85 1.11 0.97
Numbers 2.52 2.15 2.51 2.15 1.00
Swear words 0.31 0.64 0.30 0.63 0.99
Social words 8.63 3.97 7.92 3.82 0.98
   Family 0.53 0.85 0.51 0.84 0.99
   Friends 0.33 0.46 0.32 0.46 0.99
   Humans 0.73 0.66 0.67 0.61 0.95
Affect 5.12 2.25 4.04 1.91 0.93
   Positive emotions 3.02 1.62 2.26 1.33 0.89
   Negative emotions 2.04 1.43 1.76 1.31 0.97
      Anxiety 0.39 0.46 0.28 0.39 0.91
      Anger 0.69 0.86 0.59 0.79 0.97
      Sadness 0.41 0.50 0.37 0.47 0.97
Cognitive mechanisms 16.34 4.02 6.41 2.50 0.75
   Insight 2.20 1.26 1.86 1.05 0.86
   Causal 1.44 0.80 0.90 0.61 0.83
   Discrepancy 1.63 0.98 2.14 1.13 0.87
   Tentative 2.60 1.30 2.45 1.27 0.84
   Certainty 1.31 0.80 1.08 0.71 0.81
   Inhibition 0.43 0.39 0.30 0.30 0.73
   Inclusive 4.96 1.90 5.80 1.62 0.72
   Exclusive 2.89 1.49 3.56 1.35 0.61
Seeing 0.79 0.72 0.68 0.53 0.61
Hearing 0.56 0.56 0.96 0.77 0.60
Feeling 0.69 0.63 0.44 0.53 0.68
Body 0.77 0.86 0.69 0.81 0.79
Sexual 0.36 0.66 0.33 0.59 0.91
Motion 2.33 1.34 1.54 1.07 0.86
Space 5.86 2.02 3.41 1.41 0.76
Time 5.75 2.40 4.60 2.10 0.93
Occupation 1.87 1.63 2.12 1.55 0.89
Achievement 1.27 0.87 0.78 0.59 0.80
Leisure 1.20 1.05 1.25 1.11 0.67
Home 0.77 0.90 0.73 0.80 0.89
Money 0.49 0.60 0.35 0.46 0.91
Religion 0.23 0.47 0.20 0.43 0.79
Death 0.14 0.32 0.12 0.30 0.96
Assent 0.73 1.28 0.45 0.87 0.92
Nonfluencies 0.30 0.49 0.10 0.38 0.82
Fillers 0.22 0.80 0.21 0.79 0.99

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